aphasia - language disorder.
-reduced ability or inability to understand or use language. Expressive difficulties are problems with talking, writing or using gesture. Receptive difficulties describe problems with understanding speech, written information or gesture. Aphasia can be common after damage to the speech or language centres of the brain as a result of stroke or brain injury.
-reduced intelligibility of speech due to weakness in some of the muscles required. Speech may sound weak, slurred, nasal or breathy. Damage to the brain or nerves can cause dysarthria.
-changes to the planning and co-ordination of muscle movements. Verbal dyspraxia is difficulty planning and organising sounds for speech. Dyspraxic speech can appear effortful, cluttered or unclear.
cognitive communication issues
-changes to cognition and/or personality that have a secondary impact on communication i.e. emotional content, attention, memory, perception, planning, decision making, impulsivity and inhibition, ability to 'filter' information or to 'read between the lines'.
reduced awareness states
-damage to the brain causes diminished levels of awareness, including minimally conscious or vegetative states. People may also experience a post-traumatic amnesia (reduced memory, reduced orientation etc.)